Oil and gas reservoir development using multi-stage fracturing and horizontal wells is a technological innovation that has unlocked reserves in unconventional reservoirs like the Bakken, and revitalized convential reservoirs like the Viking. Reservoir and fracture modelling and optimization of these plays requires inclusion of multidisciplinary physics in the geo-mechanical and reservoir fluid flow modelling. Generation of the necessary input parameters has resulted in numerous methods derived from both field and laboratory tests.
This presentation includes new approaches to field and laboratory derived acquisition of simulation input data. New laboratory facilities combined with modified numerical workflows provide a preliminary basis for well placement and hydraulic fracturing. We will discuss methods and topics such as reservoir stress initialization and its contribution to well orientation and multi-stage fracturing, modelling of proppant embedment and fracture conductivity, and estimation of bulk and anisotropic geomechanical elastic properties with combined CT-scan and drill-cut data.
The use and application of these workflows and laboratory methods will be discussed, regarding field development planning and production forecasting. Identification of sweet spots based on the geomechanical characterization will also be presented. Finally, we will discuss what to do when there is a lack of data, and how to get the geomechanical data from various non-typical sources and methods.